Help Chapters and Audio Examples in our Help Classroom

( New chapters frequently added )

Music Theory and Analysis

Chord Reference

The Circle of Fifths - Key Relationships


Ear Training Basics

Musical Forms

The Fugue

Functional Harmony Basics

Guitar Chords



Major Scales

Minor Scales

A Musical Framework

Musical Nuts and Bolts

Musical Instrument Digital Interface

Music Theory

Music and the Brain

The Music Industry

List of Musical Instruments

Musical Notation

Musical Notation

Quartal Harmony

Sharps and Flats

Basic Sonata Theory

Tempo, Dynamics and Terms


Triads and Chords

Tuning Systems

Unique Scales and Modes


Music History

A Brief History Of Music

A Brief History Of Czech Music

Antiquity - Quick Facts

Baroque Composers - Timeline

Baroque Music Defined

Baroque Music Performance

Baroque Music History

The Baroque German Violin Bow

The Baroque Lute-Harpsichord

Other Baroque Musicians

Baroque - Quick Facts

Music of the Classical Period

Classical - Quick Facts

Music Among the Ancient Egyptians

Musical Forms

The Fugue

German Opera in New York

Music Among the Ancient Greeks

Music Among the Hebrews and Assyrians

Italian and German Vocal Styles

Jazz History

Jazz Biographies

Jazz Bands

Middle Ages - Quick Facts

Movies About Music

Musical Theatre

Music History - A Primer

Music Jokes

Music Timeline

The Standard Operas

The Standard Operas Part II

The Standard Operas Part III

The Standard Oratorios Part I

The Standard Oratorios Part II

The Standard Oratorios Part III

Popular Songs Based on Classical Music

Renaissance - Quick Facts

Rock Music

Romantic Era - Quick Facts

Roughstock's History of Country Music

Rehabilitating Antonio Salieri

Basic Sonata Theory

Twentieth Century - Quick Facts

Verdi vs. Wagner



Tomaso Albinoni

Milton Babbitt

J.S. Bach Bio

Johann Sebastian Bach

Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

Ludwig van Beethoven: A Musical Titan

Ludwig Van Beethoven Bio


Irving Berlin


Hector Berlioz Bio

Biographical Sketches A-L

Biographical Sketches M-Z

Boieldieu and Auber

Giovanni Battista Bononcini

Johannes Brahms Bio

John Cage

Cherubini and his Predecessors

Frederic Francois Chopin: Poet of the Piano

Chopin, The Great Genius of the Pianoforte

Frederic Chopin Bio

Aaron Copland

Arcangelo Corelli

Claude Debussy and Impressionism

Claude Achille Debussy Bio

Donizetti and Bellini

Antonin Dvorak

John Field: The Irish Romantic

Cesar Franck Bio

Edward Grieg Bio

Johann Joseph Fux

Francesco Geminiani 1687-1762

C.W. Gluck Bio

C.W. Gluck

Francois Couperin Le Grand

Gounod and Thomas

G.F. Handel Bio

George Frideric Handel


Joseph Haydn and the Classical Era

Josef Haydn Bio

Charles Ives

Serge Koussevitzky Bio

Friedrich Daniel Rudolf Kuhlau 1786-1832

Franz Liszt Bio

Edward Macdowell Bio

Mehul, Spontini, and Halevy

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Bio



Wolfgang Mozart Bio

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


Palestrina Bio

Piccini, Paisiello and Cimarosa

Jean-Philippe Rameau


Carl Ruggles

Rehabilitating Antonio Salieri

Domenico Scarlatti

Franz Peter Schubert: Master of Song

Franz Schubert Bio

Schubert, Schumann, and Franz

Robert Alexander Shumann

Schumann as Mirrored in His Letters

Robert Schumann Bio

Karlheinz Stockhausen

Leopold Stokowski Bio


Georg Philipp Telemann

James Tenney

Peter Ilyitch Tschaikowsky Bio

Arturo Toscanini Bio

Edgard Varèse


Giuseppe Verdi Bio

Verdi vs. Wagner

Antonio Vivaldi

Richard Wagner: Zenith of German Romanticism

Richard Wagner Bio

Richard Wagner

Carl Maria Von Weber

Iannis Xenakis

Jan Dismas Zelenka


Help With This Software

Bibliography and Credits

Help - Readme File

Help - How to Use This Software

Help on the Help Classroom

Test Writing Guide

The History of Music is Basic



Index by Chapter Number

Web Link Index

Applet Index

Visual Aid Index

Music History Index

Index of Composers

Theory Index

Help Index



Audio Examples


Scales and Modes

Major Scale (Ionian Mode)

Natural Minor Scale (Aeolian Mode)

Harmonic Minor Scale

Fixed Melodic Minor Scale

Dorian Mode

Mixolydian Mode

Phrygian Mode

Lydian Mode

Hypophrygian Mode (Formerly Locrian)

Melodic Minor Scale

Major Pentatonic Scale

Minor Pentatonic Scale

Whole Tone Scale

Chromatic Scale

Blues Scale



Minor 2nd

Major 2nd

Minor 3rd or Augmented 2nd

Major 3rd

Perfect 4th

Augmented 4th or Diminished 5th (Tritone)

Perfect 5th

Minor 6th or Augmented 5th

Major 6th

Minor 7th or Augmented 6th

Major Seventh

Perfect 8th (Octave)



Major Triad

Minor Triad

Diminished Triad

Augmented Triad

Triad Inversions

Minor 7th Chord

Minor Major 7th

Major 7th Chord

Half Diminished 7th Chord

Major Minor 7th Chord

Augmented Minor 7th Chord

Augmented Major 7th Chord

Tone Cluster

Diminished 7th Chord

9th Chord

11th Chord

Suspended 4th Chord

Suspended 2nd Chord

Major 6th Chord

Major 9th Chord

Minor Diminished 7th Chord

Major 11th Chord

Minor 9th Chord

Quartal Chord


Cadences and Progressions

Perfect Cadence (V-I)

Plagal Cadence (IV-I)

Deceptive Cadence (V-VI)

Imperfect Cadence (I-V)

I - IV - V - I Progression

I - VI - V - I Progression

I - VI - IV - I Progression

I - III - IV - I Progression

I - III - V - I Progression

I - III - VI - I Progression

II Minor 7 - V7 - I Maj7 Progression of the Major Scale

II Dim - V7 - I Minor Chord Progression of the Harm Minor Scale


Species Counterpoint

Species 1 Example

Species 2 Example

Species 3 Example

Species 4 Example

Species 5 Example


Musical Excerpts

Seize the Day (CV)

Albeniz - Leyenda

Bach - Chaconne in G minor

Bach - Prelude - Cello Suite 1

Bach - Goldberg Variations - Aria

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 1

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 2

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 3

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 4

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 5

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 7

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 8

Bach - Goldberg Variations - 9

Bach - Gavotte I - BWV 995

Bach - Gavotte II - BWV 995

Bach - Gigue - BWV 995

Bach - Prelude - BWV 995

Bach - Sarabande - BWV 995

Bach - Sarabande - BWV 996

Bach - Allemande - BWV 996

Bach - Bouree - BWV 996

Bach - Courante - BWV 996

Bach - Gigue - BWV 996

Bach - Prelude - BWV 996

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 1

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 2

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 3

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 4

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 5

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 6

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 7

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 8

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 9

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 10

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 11

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 12

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 13

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 14

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 15

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 16

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 17

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 18

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 19

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 20

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 21

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 22

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 23

Bach - Well Tempered Clavier 24



Harmonic Series

Natural Notes

Do Re Mi